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Those of us who have spent time with disputants were not surprised. They make mistakes sometimes. Appellate courts and appellate arbitration panels, like instant replay, owe their existence to the need for second or third looks. In fact, the ultimate second-looker famously analogized the roll of judges to umpires in his confirmation hearings. Chief Justice John G.

There, law professors asked a large group of trial judges to respond to a three question survey at a judicial conference. Perhaps unfairly, the questions were not application of law to fact questions that judges might face at work, but analytical quizzes reminiscent of the SAT:. How much does the ball cost?

If it takes 5 machines 5 minutes to make 5 widgets, how long would it take machines to make widgets? In a lake, there is a patch of lily pads. Every day, the patch doubles in size. If it takes 48 days for the patch to cover the entire lake, how long would it take for the patch to cover half the lake?

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The authors reported a 1. There may be inherent problems with this and any survey. The judges may not have put much effort into the break-time quiz at their information packed conference and the questions do not approximate what they are asked to do on the bench. Another major study concluded that even parties advised by experienced litigators are not above error. Yet while plaintiffs tend to make more errors in their estimates more frequently, defendants do so with greater severity.

Psychologists have long taught us that people with exactly the same information reach different conclusions. Buyers rarely want to pay as much as sellers demand, whether negotiating the sale of a house, car, or lawsuit. But the magnitude of the decisional error is telling. Mediation is a commonly used to debias positional assumptions that lead to impasse.All rights reserved.

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Lufthansa Italia. Thread Tools. EAM, grazie per aver tradotto il mio tedesko maccheronico. View Public Profile. Find More Posts by Speevy. Find More Posts by shinners. Perdonami Flygirl, io non sono pessimista. Sono realista e conosco la situazione molto bene e, senza alcun vanto, meglio di te. A Malpensa inizialmente ci sarebbe dovuta andare la nostra compagnia. Aggiunge poi un generico "in futuro vorremmo fare assunzioni" che non significa niente.

Il Comandante Brenna e gli altri 4 hanno un semplicissimo contratto di consulenza di un anno, non lavorano per Lufthansa. Spero di essere stato sufficientemente chiaro. A presto. Find More Posts by airdolomitien. Ti ringrazio molto per le tue informazioni, apprezzo la tua spiegazione. Last edited by flygirl; 26th Nov at Find More Posts by flygirl Cosa Credo. Spero che per quanto riguarda gli equipaggi di volo di cabina e il personale di supporto logistico diano lavoro anche agli italiani.

E quando sono arrivati a verona hanno imparato l'italiano. Li abbiamo avuti via e-mail sul nostro forum, mandati dagli stessi tedeschi.

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Figuratevi un po' come potranno permettere che nasca una compagnia in italia con quel nome e quel logo. Cosa credete che dovrebbe dire, niente italiani da noi.

All'inizio del progetto, nato dal presidente di air dolomiti, da mxp avrebbe dovuto operare EN con 6 EMB Il management tedesco era d'accordo, ma poi sono intervenuti DOV, training e sicurezza volo di LH, oltre a VC, che hanno bloccato tutto. Air Dolomiticos' come nessun altro, poteva operare con quel nome e con quel logo.

Non corrisponde neanche al vero che il personale di cabina parli italiano. Tutto qui. Per questo motivo stanno ripensando il progetto e ne stanno discutendo col sindacato dei piloti. Devono decidere se continuare a operare con i loro equipaggi o se affidare tutte le operazioni ad un terzo operatore. In quest'ultimo caso potrebbe essere EN, a cui nel frattempo sono stati imposti progetti per innalzare i livelli operativi, selettivi e addestrativi.

Quindi come stanno le cose, anche se a noi possono non piacere, lo sappiamo eccome.All rights reserved. Use of this site indicates your consent to the Terms of Use. Login with Facebook. Remember Me?

Advance care planning dispositions: the relationship between knowledge and perception

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Mark Forums Read. Inconveniente grave A Air Moldova. Thread Tools. View Public Profile. Mancati avvicinamenti a bizzeffe per meteo avverso, e poi atterrano con Visual Circuit????? Find More Posts by aloa Find More Posts by liftman. No ci pensa il coleottero con tecniche ardite di management.

Si sa esattamente con quanto carburante sono atterrati? The crew subsequently decided to divert to Bologna Italy and were climbing through FL when the crew declared a fuel emergency, aborted the climb and decided to return to Fiumicino Airport. The aircraft however needed to go around again from about feet AGL while on final approach to runway 16L, performed a visual circuit and at L Z landed safely on runway 16R about 48 minutes after the first missed approach.

Se sono atterrati con kg dopo tutti questi giri di carburante ne avevano in partenza. Mi ricordo di un report del Lufthansa in Usa fare qualcosa di simile. Un interessante articolo di un Comandate AZnon di un giornalaiointeressante spunto per una discussione senza patatine e aperitivi, ossia tra Professionisti Emergency fuel: una preoccupante routine.

Il pilota, anche. Spesso, quello che abbiamo deciso si rivela esatto; altre volte no. Vuol dire che se i piloti imbarcano il minimo carburante per andare da Roma a Milano, risparmiano teoricamente 40 kg. Allora, dividiamo 32 euro per passeggeri otteniamo ben 20 centesimi a testa.

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Un marziano si chiederebbe: quale passeggero non sarebbe disposto a pagare 20 centesimi per la propria sicurezza? Infatti, ci sono diverse situazioni che possono non essere riportate. Una volta a terra, i piloti semplicemente compilano i documenti e vanno a casa senza notare il tipo di minaccia latente. Il quantitativo di carburante imbarcato da un equipaggio potrebbe essere considerato pericoloso da un passeggero e invece un inutile spreco da un manager.

Infatti, una volta che si finisce sui giornali si apre uno scenario interessante. Si applica la reclusione da tre mesi a due anni a chi lancia corpi contundenti o proiettili contro veicoli in movimento, destinati a pubblici trasporti per terra, per acqua o per aria.Alcuni di noi, alla fine, raggiungono la consapevolezza e mettono in moto delle grosse energie che provocano reazioni positive nel Tutto.

Introducendo il dossier, i direttori della rivista Howard Bauchner e Phil B. Gli articoli sono tutti accessibili gratuitamente anche ai non abbonati. Considerazioni simili possono essere fatte a proposito delle situazioni di rischio che si verificano nella comunicazione scientifica.

Sono diversi i contributi che se ne occupano, a iniziare da un altro intervento dei due editor, Bauchner e Fontanarosa, sui conflitti di interessi nelle riviste mediche 6. Di rilievo anche il paragrafo sul percorso degli editoriali e degli altri contributi come le Viewpoint: al contrario del BMJ, JAMA non esclude dal ruolo di autore i clinici che si trovino in una condizione di conflitto di interessi.

Gottlieb e Neil M. Un sistema accademico molto competitivo, sostiene Jeffrey S. Types and distribution of payments from industry to physicians in Payments to physicians. Does the amount of money make a difference?.

Association between academic medical center pharmaceutical detailing policies and physician prescribing. Funding, institutional conflicts of interest, and schools of public health. Realities and solutions. Financial conflicts of interest in continuing medical education.

Implications and accountability. Conflict of interest and medical journals. JAMA ; Role of leaders in fostering meaningful collaborations between academic medical centers and industry while also managing individual and institutional conflicts of interest. Teaching medical students about conflicts of interest. Conflict of interest among medical school faculty.

Achieving a coherent and objective approach. Imparare a rischiare. Come prendere le decisioni giuste.

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Milano: Raffaello Cortina, Da Corvelva. Tra i vari "pilastri" trovavamo un nome, Susanna EspositoNCBI Bookshelf. Authors Thomas L. In some ways financial abuse is very similar to other forms of elder abuse in that it can be devastating to the victim and is frequently traced to family members, trusted friends, and caregivers.

But unlike physical abuse and neglect, financial abuse is more likely to occur with the tacit acknowledgment and consent of the elder person 1 and can be more difficult to detect and establish. As a result, financial abuse requires a distinct analytical perspective and response. Unfortunately, these differences are often overlooked. Little empirical research has been conducted that directly addresses financial abuse of the elderly, and in general it has received less attention than other forms of elder abuse Nerenberg, b.

Because financial abuse is frequently addressed in conjunction with other forms of elder abuse, a brief overview of elder abuse in general is provided before turning specifically to financial abuse of the elderly. Elder abuse, at least to some degree, has probably always existed.

Only in the past few decades, however, has it been recognized as a major societal problem. Today, elder abuse is widely characterized as both a pervasive problem and a growing concern Dessin, ; Heisler, ; Moskowitz, b. The National Elder Abuse Incidence Study NEAISwhich was described as the first national study of the incidence of elder abuse in the United States, 2 estimated that nearly a half million persons aged 60 and over in domestic settings were abused or neglected during National Center on Elder Abuse, The NEAIS confirmed a general view that state agencies established to receive such reports, such as Adult Protective Services APS agencies, receive reports of the most visible and obvious occurrences of elder abuse, but that there are many other incidents that are not reported.

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Nevertheless, the number of APS elder abuse reports substantially increased over the past 10 years, an increase that exceeded the growth in the elderly population during this period National Center on Elder Abuse, What constitutes elder abuse is defined by state law, and state definitions vary considerably U.

Elder abuse in domestic settings i. Domestic elder abuse has been asserted to be more prevalent than institutional elder abuse Kosberg and Nahmiash, ; Marshall et al.

However, research directly substantiating this assertion is lacking. Although conceptualizations of what elder abuse encompasses vary considerably, the National Center on Elder Abuse identifies six major categories of elder abuse. They include physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, neglect, abandonment, and financial abuse. Among these categories, financial abuse has received limited attention and is often not assessed in studies of elder abuse Choi et al.

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Nonetheless, financial abuse is increasingly viewed as both sufficiently important to necessitate its inclusion in studies of elder abuse in general and sufficiently distinct to justify addressing it separately Choi and Mayer, Pierre Decker 5, Lausanne, Switzerland. Legal dispositions for advance care planning ACP are available but used by a minority of older adults in Switzerland.

Some studies found that knowledge of and perception of those dispositions are positively associated with their higher usage.

The objective of the present study is to test the hypothesis of an association between increased knowledge of ACP dispositions and a more positive perception of them.

Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire on knowledge, use and perception of lasting power of attorney, advance directives and designation of a health care proxy. Bivariable and multivariable regression analyses assessed the association between level of knowledge and perception. Level of knowledge about the dispositions was associated with a more positive perception of them, even when adjusting for confounding factors.

Communication on dispositions should take into account individual knowledge levels and address commonly enunciated barriers that seem to diminish with increased knowledge. In Switzerland revised the National Adult Protection Law to better match the current societal trend towards the right of self-determination. Three legal advance care planning ACP dispositions are now available country-wide to allow the communication of personal wishes ahead of time in case of lost capacity for decision-making or for expressing oneself.

Advance directives AD can be drafted to specify which medical treatment one would or would not want to receive. Finally, there is the possibility of naming a health care proxy HCP who will take on the role of surrogate decision-maker when facing different treatment options if needed. Also, advance directives can but do not always include the designation of a health care proxy. In the absence of any of those ACP dispositions, the law defines who shall take such responsibility for someone having lost decisional capacity first any legal guardian, followed respectively by the spouse or registered partner if living together, a household member, descendants and parents, all on the condition that they were already providing regular personal help to this person.

Older adults are more directly concerned by legal dispositions for ACP but seldom use them. Data are nevertheless geographically very different in Switzerland, with a much higher rate in German-speaking than in French or Italian-speaking regions of the country.

Data on reasons for infrequent use of legal dispositions for ACP outside of the end-of-life population are scarce and mainly focused on AD.

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Studies found that lack of knowledge was the primary or one of the primary reasons why AD were not initiated [ 589 ]. The conjunction of a frequent lack of knowledge of the ACP dispositions and an equally frequent reported willingness to use them when informed of their existence [ 1011 ] points to information as a key determinant of completion.

Other studies revealed more positive perceptions towards dispositions among people who had completed them than among people who had not [ 11 — 14 ]. However, as far as we are aware, to date no studies have yet taken into account the association between knowledge and perception of legal dispositions for ACP. The survey we conducted among community-dwelling older adults in Switzerland examining their knowledge, use, and perception of the three legal dispositions [ 10 ] allows for further understanding of the processes at work by investigating the association between knowledge and perception of each dispositions.

Fried used the TTM model to develop personalized health messages to promote engagement in advance care planning [ 17 ]. Prochaska and Velicer, as well as Fried, have studied the pattern of the decisional balance for engaging in various behaviors at each of these stages, i. Based on the premise that there exists a maturation process before the completion of a disposition, and that each stage of this process needs to be identified, the current study investigated the relationship between knowledge and perception of each of the dispositions.

Our data, by including three levels of knowledge knowledge, partial knowledge and no knowledge prior to the survey and gathering information about perceived advantages and disadvantages of each of them, allowed us to test the following hypotheses:.

For each disposition, individuals who were aware of it prior to the study should report a more positive perception, by selecting advantages more often and disadvantages less often than people who did not know about it. This association should persist after adjustment for potential confounding factors. People who knew about the dispositions should also report a more positive perception of them than the individuals who only had partial knowledge of them.

Testing these hypotheses will provide additional insight into the mechanisms involved in the decision to file or not dispositions regarding advance care planning, thus allowing better communication strategies on these issues.

Data were drawn from a survey of older residents in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland, on the new National Adult Protection Law. Content validity was assessed within the same team and the questionnaire was not submitted to outside experts.

The questionnaire laid out objectives, content, and different modalities of the three dispositions before asking participants about their previous knowledge, use, and perception of them.Your comments to my prior posts, our follow-on discussions since then, and a little research confirm that a confident minority of mediators and litigators use them, too.

This post is the first of three over the next few weeks that will give you real-life examples of how decision trees are used to settle disputes. How do mediators and advocates use decision trees in mediation?

It can be so difficult for a client with no experience with litigation to even fathom the scope of uncertainties involved. I primarily use decision trees as a visual, tangible reality check. Engineers and many accountants generally prefer finite things. It can be extremely powerful to have a clean, concrete decision tree to evaluate risk. Fold in a time prediction and they can fold in a time-value-of-money factor. If you can show the parties a way to reduce the mushy, often gut-feel outcome predictions to something concrete that they can evaluate, it has been my experience that they are much more likely to march directly to a resolution.

Of course, this requires that you understand the decision tree intimately so that you can help them to make appropriate predictions. If the parties, or any of them, are inclined toward using logical approaches, [decision trees] can be very effective. That allows me to use a combined set of techniques. First, I ask counsel to provide me an evaluation of the probable outcome if the case is not settled. The client is typically thinking far higher percentages. I then ask for the lawyer to quantify in numbers their percentage evaluations or evaluation ranges for me.

We then work towards settlement using that information and modifying it as necessary when new information is learned. It can be a very powerful technique with any parties that are mathematically inclined or impressed. Loree Jr. I have found decision trees to be a valuable tool to help advise clients of the settlement value of complex cases. Often times the client is looking for something with some basis in logic and science to help convince upper management to authorize a settlement number, and a decision tree can provide that kind of support.

Predicting settlement value is part art and part science and one should draw on both disciplines when putting together a decision tree. The nice thing, though, is the end product looks more like science than art, and that can boost its credibility in the eyes of upper management.

Decision trees can help clients who want a valuation based on more than your legal intuition. Working through a decision tree with your client will show them that you have vigorously evaluated each aspect of their claim.

They will know each and every hurdle in their way and understand how you have assessed each. Washington lawyer Patrick F. Hofera former student of decision tree pioneer Marc Victorcommented on a prior Settlement Perspectives post that decision trees help parties get to the actual value of the case, resulting in settlements that stick:.

I have successfully used decision trees to settle dozens of cases.


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